Vitamins are an essential nutrient for maintaining human health. They play an important role in regulating body metabolism and maintaining normal physiological functions. Although the body does not need many vitamins, a lack of vitamins will cause problems, and the body will send out an "alert."
Among them, vitamin D is one of the four common fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, E, K), divided into two forms: D2 and D3. Vitamin D2 (also known as calciferol) can be obtained from fortified foods, plant foods and supplements; vitamin D3 (also known as cholecalciferol) can be obtained from fortified foods, animal foods (fatty fish, cod liver oil, eggs) And liver) and supplements, and when the skin is exposed to the ultraviolet rays of the sun, the body can also synthesize.
Consequences of vitamin D deficiency
To ensure strong bones, vitamin D is essential because it can promote calcium absorption. If the body lacks this nutrient, it may cause rickets, osteomalacia, and increase the risk of fractures.
Lack of vitamin D will affect the activity of more than 200 genes in the human genome, and may cause a series of diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, bowel cancer, Crohn's disease, and certain immune diseases.
Seasonal affective disorder, osteoporosis, muscle pain and other diseases are also associated with vitamin D deficiency.
Vitamin D supplementation is required during pregnancy and early childhood growth. Large doses of intake may reduce the risk of breast and bowel cancer.
These people are prone to vitamin D deficiency
Vitamin D deficiency mainly occurs in people who are not exposed to sunlight and lack food sources. In addition, gastrointestinal disease, liver disease, kidney disease, etc. can cause vitamin D deficiency.
In general, there are several types of people who are prone to vitamin D deficiency:
People with little outdoor activities, such as elderly people who stay indoors for a long time, white-collar workers working indoors, night shift workers, nerds and nerds, etc.
Vegans, patients with celiac disease
Caused by medication, such as certain anti-epileptic drugs
Other risk factors, such as high latitude, lack of sunlight, dark skin, advanced age, obesity, etc.
7 signs of vitamin D deficiency
The only way to determine the lack of vitamin D in the body is through a blood test, but some physical characteristics or symptoms can also remind us.
Darker complexion. According to research, dark-skinned people need to increase the sun exposure 10 times to get the same vitamin D as white-skinned people.
Skin pigment is a natural sunscreen. The more pigment, the longer the sun needs to be. In addition, applying sunscreen with a SPF of 30 will reduce the skin's ability to produce vitamin D by 97%.
Feeling "depressed". When a person is in bright light, the brain will secrete more serotonin that can make the mood happy, and when the sunshine time is reduced, the secretion of serotonin will also decrease.
A researcher once tested 80 elderly patients and found that those with the lowest vitamin D content in their bodies were 11 times more likely to suffer from depression than those who inject moderate amounts of vitamin D daily.
Over 50 years old. The older the age, the weaker the skin's ability to produce vitamin D; at the same time, the weaker the liver's ability to convert vitamin D into a form that can be absorbed by the body.
Older people spend more time indoors and spend less time in the sun, so they are more likely to suffer from vitamin D deficiency.
Overweight or obese. Too much body fat reduces blood vitamin D levels. The reason is that vitamin D is fat-soluble. The more body fat, the easier it is to "dilute".
People who are overweight or obese may need more vitamin D.
Bone pain. Adults who lack vitamin D are more likely to have bone and muscle pain, especially in winter.
The head sweats. Head sweating is a typical symptom of vitamin D deficiency.
Problems with the intestines. The National Institutes of Health research has found that Crohn’s disease and celiac or enteritis can affect fat absorption and are more likely to lead to vitamin D deficiency.
How much vitamin D needs to be taken by different groups of people every day
Vitamin D requirements increase with age:
Infant <1 year old: 400IU/day
Children 1-18 years old: 600IU/day
Adult female 19-70 years old: 600IU/day, >70 years old: 800IU/day
Pregnant women/breastfeeding: 14-18 years old: 600IU/day, >18 years old: 600IU/day
Adult males 19-70 years old: 600IU/day, >70 years old: 800IU/day