Our body consumes energy all the time, and nutrients can provide our bodies with the organic and inorganic substances needed, including seven categories: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, minerals, vitamins, dietary fiber, water
(1) Function: supply energy, form organization, and adjust function.
(2) Essential nutrients: nutrients that cannot be synthesized in the body and must be obtained from food;
(3) Non-essential nutrients: they can be generated by other food components in the body, and do not necessarily require nutrients obtained directly from food.
The physiological function of fat
1. Storage and energy supply: Features: There is no upper limit for fat absorption; it cannot supply energy for brain, nerve and blood cells.
2. Composition of tissues: normal people: fat accounts for 14% -19% of body weight; fat people: fat accounts for 32% of body weight; overweight people: 60%
Female: The fat under the skin is higher than male; Male: The total cholesterol in the skin is higher than that of female
Fat storage: fat cells contained in adipose tissue
Fat change: affected by nutrition and activities, liquid or semi-liquid at body temperature
Lipid: It is a component of tissue structure, not affected by nutrition and activities
3. Supply essential fatty acids: meet the needs of the body's physiological functions and metabolism
4. Facilitates vitamin absorption: Promotes absorption of fat-soluble vitamins
5. Thermal insulation and anti-vibration: The fat stored in the organs can protect the important organs of the body
Physiological function of protein
1. Composition and repair of tissues: The protein content in adults accounts for about 16% -19% of body weight.
2. Regulate physiological functions:
Constitute physiologically active substances: nucleus, enzyme protein, immune protein, contractile protein, lipoprotein, transferrin, retinol binding protein, hemoglobin, albumin, pituitary hormone, thyroxine, insulin
—Affect cell function
—Digestion, absorption and utilization of food
—Maintain the body's immune function
—Regulate muscle contraction
-Carry and transport oxygen
—Adjust osmotic pressure and maintain body fluid balance
—Regulate body functional activities
Provide thermal energy.
It is an important component of the body.
Participate in the metabolism of nutrients and have the effect of saving protein.
Carbohydrates have a detoxifying effect.
Provide dietary fiber
Vitamin physiological function
Maintain normal visual function
Maintain normal growth and differentiation of epithelial tissue
Promote growth and development
Prevent cell cancer
Participate in glycoprotein synthesis and maintain normal immune function
The physiological function of minerals
It is an important material that constitutes body tissues, such as bones and teeth.
Synergy with protein to maintain the osmotic pressure of tissue cells;
The proper combination of acidic and basic inorganic ions, together with the buffering effect of bicarbonate and protein, maintains the body's acid-base balance.
Participate in the formation of functional substances.
Various inorganic ions, especially maintaining a certain proportion of potassium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium ions are necessary conditions for maintaining neuromuscular excitability and cell membrane permeability;
Maintain some important components of the body with special physiological functions;
Is an activator or component of many enzymes
It is an important component of cells and body fluids: the water content of the adult body accounts for about 65% of the body weight, the water content of the blood accounts for more than 80%, and the water is widely distributed inside and outside the tissue cells, constituting the internal environment of the human body.
Lubrication: In joints, chest cavity, abdominal cavity and gastrointestinal tract, there is a certain amount of water, which can buffer, lubricate and protect organs, joints, muscles and tissues.
Participate in the metabolism of the human body: In the process of digestion, absorption, circulation and excretion, it can help accelerate the delivery of nutrients and the excretion of waste, so that the metabolism and physiochemical reactions in the human body can proceed smoothly.
Regulate human body temperature: At high temperatures, body heat can evaporate and dissipate through the skin with moisture to maintain a constant body temperature.
The physiological function of dietary fiber
Good for food digestion
Lower serum cholesterol and prevent coronary heart disease
Prevent gallstone formation
Promote colon function and prevent colon cancer
Prevent excess energy and obesity
Maintain normal blood sugar balance and prevent diabetes