Principles of choosing nutritional supplements


1. Before choosing a fortified nutrient, other sources of the nutrient in the diet must be considered. On the one hand, it is necessary to ensure that the nutrient level will not be excessive after ingesting the fortified food; on the other hand, the addition of the nutrient should also be necessary. The fortified amount of nutrients should significantly increase the content in the diet so that sufficient nutrients can be obtained by taking in the usual amount of food.
2. Pay attention to the balance between various nutrients to prevent the imbalance of nutrient intake due to food fortification; and after adding an essential nutrient to the food, it must not adversely affect the metabolism of other nutrients.
3. Try to choose nutrient fortifiers with biological activity and high stability. For example, the nutritional value of iron varies greatly depending on the form used. For another example, some nutrients can be destroyed by exposure to air or heating, such as vitamin A, ascorbic acid and riboflavin, amino acids, etc. can be destroyed by light, heat and oxidation. The content of β-carotene in flour is very small, and the stability of β-carotene is relatively high, so an appropriate amount of β-carotene can be added to bread and biscuits (the dosage is 0.5 mg/kg flour). Dough preparation, proofing (bread) or pressing (biscuits), and baking its retention is still as high as 83.3%.
4. Try to choose nutrient fortifiers that are easily absorbed by the body, and try to avoid the use of insoluble, difficult to absorb or fortifiers that are easily affected by food. Some inorganic salts and vitamins are easily destroyed by interaction in food or lost due to water washing. Therefore, the added nutrients should not interfere with the original food. For example, iron can precipitate some monoacids and ester acyls in the food. .
5. To fortify a certain essential nutrient, it is necessary to provide technical methods for its measurement and monitoring.
6. The added nutrients should not adversely affect the characteristics of the food, such as safety, color, aroma, taste, texture, cooking properties, etc., and should not excessively shorten the shelf life of the food.